Less gender-based violence and more justice for women: the efforts of Aics and UN WOMEN in Kenya

“The elections of this year, 2022, were the first peaceful elections in Bungoma since 1963” tells us Rosemary Cheptai, a lady of a certain age with lively eyes and wrinkled hands. The Bungoma area and, in particular that of Mount Elgon where Rosemary comes from - on the border with Uganda - is considered  particularly vulnerable during electoral periods due to the numerous episodes of violence. Rosemary tells us her story: “During the electoral periods I was the victim of violence. My neighbors have also lost sons and daughters. Now I am a peace facilitator: I lead dialogues with my community and neighbors. We are tired of losing our children. We are tired of being violated. We need to remind our people of what we've been through, so we don't go back."

Despite many fears, the general elections of August 2022 in Kenya were held peacefully and this represents a great victory for Kenya and for the populations of these areas. It is also a great victory for the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (Aics) which has been supporting prevention and response activities to gender-based violence during electoral periods since 2019 with the “Let It Not Happen Again” initiative. The funding of approximately one million dollars in favor of UN Women and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), has ensured, on the one hand, activities to strengthen the capacities of public institutions (in particular police personnel, judiciary, health personnel), and on the other hand the empowerment of civil society organizations and rights defenders associations in their advocacy efforts.

Through this initiative, numerous training sessions were organized aimed at strengthening the existing coordination mechanisms to ensure early warning and response plans in cases of violence.

“Do you remember during the first meeting?” jokingly says Betty Okero, OSC Network representative, to Chief Njeru of Bumula Police Station, Bungoma County. "We yelled at each other and we couldn't understand each other." The trainings, on the other hand, contributed to developing personal relationships between the various actors involved, thus overcoming distrust and preconceptions. All this has contributed to creating a climate of collaboration and support between the different parts of the company.

Also thanks to Italian support, for the first time in the history of Kenya this year the Public Prosecutor asked that the sentences against 12 police officers accused of rape, murder and torture for crimes committed during the 2017 elections be dealt with as crimes against humanity. This is the first criminal case for election-related sexual assault. The Public Prosecutor also ordered that the investigation be undertaken by the Independent Police Supervision Authority, with the participation of the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights, civil society organizations and survivors. Among the other results achieved in the first two phases of the project, we recall the establishment of the first Directorate for Gender at the National Police Service and the improvement of access of the target population to essential services, with 930 survivors of SGBV cases having obtained access to dedicated medico-legal services.

Despite the excellent results, there is still a long way to go to eliminate violence and abuse and it is essential to continue to fight so that human rights are no longer violated and that all citizens have fair access to justice.

Rosemary Cheptai, mother of six, chair of the district peace committee at Mt Elgon. Photo UN Women/Tabitha Icuga


Corporal Catherine Nekesa, Gender Violence Police Officer at Mbale Police Station (Vihiga County) Photo © UN Women - Tabitha Icuga

Human Rights Defenders Group, Vihiga County. Photo © UN Women - Tabitha Icuga




Christine’s cassava: from the land, dreams are born

Christine’s cassava: from the land, dreams are born

Christine is the owner of a small farm in Magodi, a village located at about 40 km from Kwale. Kwale is the town overlooking the Indian Ocean from its surrounding hills; it gives this southern County its name. From the road climbing towards Magodi, while cutting fields of fire-like red earth scented with sea breeze, it is possible to see the Indian Ocean bathing the paradisiacal beaches of the Kenyan coast.

Christine is 42, she’s a widow, and has seven children between the ages of 9 and 24. Three of her children, those who are still in primary school, help her with the work in the fields because she lost an arm many years ago and today it is not easy for her to work as a farmer. The land they own is about one acre large: here, Christine has been growing dozens of cassava plants for almost ten years. Part of the cassava she cultivates is sold; the other part is used for domestic consumption.

The roots of cassava are in fact edible and represent a fundamental part of the daily diet of many rural communities. Given its tolerance to periods of drought, cassava in Kenya is cultivated especially in arid and semi-arid areas, which constitutes about 80% of the country's surface. The crop is unfortunately very sensitive to a certain type of virus that recently has spread rapidly in many regions of East Africa, and in some cases has practically cancelled production.

Christine, she tells us, has been part of the 'Magodi Vision' farmers' cooperative since 2016. Thanks to her membership in the cooperative, she was able to participate in various training courses on the production of corn and cassava and had access to the small microcredit group created by the community. A big turning point for Christine came during the month of June when she received, as part of the Italian component of the Go Blue Program, an improved variety of cassava, known as Tajirika. 'Tajirika is a word of the Kiswahili language which means rich, prosperous', the interim County Executive Committee of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries explains us. This variety, purchased and certified by the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), matures faster than the local one, has a better productivity and in addition to being suitable for processing, it is particularly tolerant to the virus. Tajirika matures in 8-12 months, and in optimal conditions it can produce up to 20 tons / acre. Thanks to this new variety, Christine was able to improve her income from the sale of cassava.

But the good news for Christine and Magodi's farmers community don't finish there. Through the support of the 'Go Blue' project funded by the European Union, the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (Aics) through the technical partnership of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (CIHEAM Bari) is supporting the construction of a cassava processing plant powered by solar energy which will allow to peel, chop and dry cassava for flour production. Flour is in fact a product that can be sold at a higher price than fresh cassava and which guarantees greater income for farmers. The construction works, which started in October, are entrusted to the community itself under the supervision of the County of Kwale in a view to enhance ownership.

''I am really, really happy with the construction of this processing plant" Christine confides. ''I think it will help us a lot to create new products and improve our access to the market''. Cassava flour, compared to fresh product, is easy to store, has a stable price and can be added to corn flour for the preparation of ugali, one of the Kenyan dishes par excellence.

Christine's dreams are to one day become the president of the farmers' association and to expand her cassava production. Hopefully, the Go Blue project will help her achieve at least one of the two.

About the 'Go Blue' initiative

Go Blue is the Programme for the development of Kenya coastal counties funded by the European Union and implemented in partnership with the Government of Kenya: the goal is to promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, with attention to habitat conservation marine and coastal waters and to effective and integrated maritime governance. Go Blue is implemented by the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation together with the cooperation agencies of Germany, Portugal, France, two United Nations agencies (UN Habitat and UNEP) and with the Jumuiya Ya Kaunti Za Pwani – JKP Secretariat, the representative body of the six coastal counties of Kenya.

The Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (Aics) of Nairobi is responsible for the Go Blue component aimed at promoting economic growth and the strengthening of the blue economy chains. For its realization, Aics can count on a partner of excellence such as the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (CIHEAM Bari), highly specialized in the sectors of agriculture, management of coastal areas and fishing. Through Go Blue, Aics intends to promote the development of the fishing and cassava supply chains, two driving sectors for the local economy, and to support the strengthening of the JKP Secretariat, a strategic partner for the implementation of the initiative and responsible for its coordination and monitoring.

Find out more: https://nairobi.aics.gov.it/en/go-blue-2/


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Christine, main protagonist of this story, in her Cassava field in Magodi

A portrait of Christine, during our interview

Christine (centre) together with two farmers during a meeting of Magodi's agricultural cooperative

Members of Magodi's agricultural cooperative unload Cassava from a truck. The Cassava on the photo is an improved variety of cassava, known as Tajirika, donated by the Go Blue programme.

The staff of the Italian component of the Go Blue project celebrates the beginning of the construction of the Cassava's transformation centre in Magodi, together with Magodi's agricultural cooperative.

Nairobi, 12th of April 2022 – The Ambassador of Italy to Kenya, Alberto Pieri, and UN Women Regional Director for East and Southern Africa, Dr. Maxime Houinato, signed this morning the Agreement to officially kick-start the third phase of the project “Let it not happen again: Enhancing Prevention and Response to Violence Against Women in Elections”. The event counted on the presence of Mr. Giovanni Grandi, Head of Office of the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation in Nairobi, Ms. Anna Mutavati, UN WOMEN Country Representative for Kenya, representatives from the Ministry of Public Service, Gender, Senior Citizen Affairs & Special Programmes, representatives from the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Right (OHCHR), from the National Police Service and from the civil society.

With this new phase the overall initiative is worth a commitment of more than 1 million USD from the Government of Italy, which has greatly contributed to strengthen the response and accountability mechanisms with regards to gender-based violence (GBV) in sensitive periods such as the elections and the COVID pandemic in the counties of Nairobi, Kisumu, Bungoma and Vihiga.

As Ambassador Pieri said, “the strategic partnership between the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (Aics), UN WOMEN and OHCHR ensures on one hand the reinforcement of the capacities of key public institutions and on the other hand the empowerment of civil society organizations and human rights defenders’ associations in their advocacy efforts towards duty bearers”.

According to Dr Houinato, “In Kenya, electoral violence has been predominant since the introduction of multi-party democracy in the early 1990s. The “Let it Not Happen Again” project will address persisting challenges that hinder access to justice for survivors, building on the previous implementation.”

The Government of Italy is one of UN WOMEN’s top donors and stands with Kenya in the fight and prevention of gender-based violence: the promotion of gender equality is a priority and transversal theme for the action of the Italian Cooperation in Kenya.

Brief background info
“Let it not happen again: Enhancing Prevention and Response to Violence Against Women in Elections” is financed by the Government of Italy and represents the third phase of the "Let It Not Happen Again" initiative. The first two phases were focused on improving the access to justice for victims of GBV and in particular during electoral periods, while strengthening the institutional mechanisms for prevention and response. Concurrently, the initiative has intervened to strengthen civil society organizations engaged in human rights defense.
Among key results achieved during the first two phases (2019 – 2021) are the establishment of the first Gender Directorate at the National Police Service; the enhancement of the capacities of 484 professionals in the sectors of justice, security and health in the prevention and response to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and the improved access of survivors to essential services, with 930 SGBV survivors accessing medical-legal services.

>Download the joint press release


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Kenya – Eni and AICS Nairobi sign a Memorandum to develop joint initiatives

Nairobi (Kenya), 22nd July 2021 – Eni, through its subsidiary Eni Kenya, and the Nairobi Office of the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (AICS) signed today, at the presence of the Ambassador of Italy to Kenya Alberto Pieri, a Memorandum of Understanding to identify possible collaboration opportunities in the areas of agriculture and value-chain development, environment, health, vocational training and education, and access to energy/green energy and innovation. The document was signed by the Eni Kenya Managing Director Enrico Tavolini and the AICS Nairobi Head of Office Fabio Melloni.

The four-year agreement promotes and strengthens the Italian system abroad and fits in Eni’s and AICS’ strategy to leverage public-private partnerships, which the United Nations indicate as a key tool for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda. Also, this agreement is in line with the Italian law on cooperation 125/2014 which recognizes the contribution of the private sector in defining and implementing sustainable development projects.

The agreement will allow Eni Kenya and Aics in Kenya to identify and develop future collaboration projects, in accordance with the Government of Kenya’s strategic objectives for social development and in line with their respective actions in the Country.

Eni has been present in Kenya since 2013 with offshore Oil & Gas exploration activities in the Lamu Basin, and with industrial models of fully-integrated circular economy along the bio-fuel production value chain. Also, Eni Kenya contributes to the local development initiatives of the National Oil Corporation of Kenya (NOCK) in the key sectors of education, health, and water & sanitation.

The AICS Nairobi Office has a long-standing experience in the Country and a large network with other Cooperation Agencies, Civil Society Organizations as well as Organizations of the United Nations System. Moreover, Kenya is a strategic Country for the Italy and its Cooperation Agency since the late 90’s, where it has consolidated its traditional areas of intervention such as agriculture and irrigation, WASH, territorial and human development, especially health, education and private sector.

> Press release ENG (*pdf)
> Photos (*jpeg)


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Uganda – Signed the agreement for the Karamoja Infrastructure Development Project (KIDP II)

Kampala (Uganda) – The Ambassador of Italy to Uganda, H.E. Massimiliano Mazzanti and the Minister of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, Hon. Matia Kasaija signed on August 19, 2021, at the Ministry of Finance, the agreement for the Italian contribution to the second phase of the Karamoja Infrastructure Development Project (KIDP II). The signing ceremony was attended by the Minister of Health Hon. dr. Jane Ruth Aceng, the Karamoja's Minister of State for Affairs,Hon. Agnes Nandutu, and the Ambassador of the European Union to Uganda, H.E. Attilio Pacifici.

In the Karamoja region, which has the highest poverty rate in Uganda, 70% of families have inadequate access to health facilities. This is due to the lack of adequate infrastructures (limited number or inadequate hospitals in the area) and human resources, and due to the limited training of the medical and health personnel employed.

In past years, with the contribution of the Italian Government and the technical support of the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (Aics), the Ugandan Government was able to build accommodation in every district of Karamoja for medical personnel working in the most remote areas of the region. Through the KIDP II, with a soft-loan of ten million euros from the Italian government and a 2 million euros contribution from the Ugandan government, the Government, with the technical support of the AICS, will be able to build and equip new hospitals, as well as to expand and modernize the departments of existing structures, and train medical staff. Once the implementation activities will start in the coming months, the initiative will last three years.

When signing, Ambassador Mazzanti underlined the importance of the agreement by noting that it will further strengthen the relations between Italy and Uganda; two Countries which have common ties since before independence.

In thanking Italy for its continued support and partnership, Hon. Kasaija expressed the importance to find a lasting solutions for peace and security in the Karamoja region, this in order to give impetus to development iniatives that have been funded so far - mainly in the fields of education and health.

This initiative, is aligned with the ongoing efforts of the AICS Regional Office in Nairobi to support local health systems within the Region which, in such extraordinary circumstances caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, are facing increasing difficulties in providing a more effective and timely assistance.


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Kenya – Strengthening the rapid alert system and environmental risk management in Africa: an Italian-led and financed program in collaboration with international partners

Nairobi, 27 October 2021 - The President of the Republic of Kenya H.E. Uhuru Kenyatta inaugurated the first regional Situation Room of the Disaster Operations Center at the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (Ngong Town). The Room was setup by the CIMA Foundation as part of the multi-year program entitled "Establishment of the Impact-based Early Warning for Early Action and Trans-boundary Risk management function of the African Union”. The programme is coordinated by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) in collaboration with the African Union (AU), and is funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation and by the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation. Through this programme will be established a system monitoring and predicting the evolution of different hazards in the region denominated on an area of ​​5.2 million square km which includes eight countries of the Great Horn of Africa Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda.

The room will provide fundamental information for managing the risk of disasters to the other centers that will be established at the African Union, the African Center for Meteorological Applications for Development (ACMAD), the meteorological and climatological centers at the Regional Economic Communities, and in the African Union Member Staes. All the rooms will be part of a system be connected through the myDewetra online platform developed through a multi-year collaboration between the Department of the Italian Civil Protection and the CIMA Foundation.

The activities planned in the first year of the programme include the creation of two additional situation rooms that will be inaugurated shortly:

- the Continental Situation Room at the headquarters of the Africa Union Commission in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), with the main function of informing the bodies of the African Union on potentially critical situations at the continental level;

- the ACMAD Multi-Hazard Advisory Center in Niamey (Niger), assigned to continental meteorological surveillance.

The three rooms, connected through the Italian platform "myDEWETRA", will be able to deliver forecast bulletins and emergency reports, such as the "Continental Watch" and the "Situation Report", which have already been rolled out after a testing phase. The Continental Watch was also presented as a "live demo" (sending the bulletin through a dedicated Telegram channel) on 13 October at the Dubai Expo during the "Spotlight on Africa DRR" Conference organized by Africa Union on the occasion of the International Day of Risk reduction (DRR Day).

This complex transnational warning and monitoring system for environmental risk, based on the Italian excellences in the field, is fundamental for a continent like Africa hit by frequent and serious disasters that have had very serious consequences on populations at economic, health, and food safety level. All that was possible thanks to the support of the Italian government, in partnership with the European Union, the Swedish government and the "Risk and Early Warning Systems -CREWS" initiative in synergy with UNDRR and other involved United Nations agencies and institutions in Africa, such as the AU and IGAD. It is the proof that only through close cooperation can lasting and effective results be obtained in the long term.


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E4Impact, a business incubator with a “triple helix” engine

Nairobi - On 21 February 2018, at the AICS Nairobi office, a press conference was held to present the call for particiaption to the E4Impact business incubator. The event was attended by the Italian Ambassador to Kenya Mauro Massoni, Head of the AICS Nairobi Office Teresa Savanella, the manager of E4Impact for East Africa David Cheboryot and the marketing director of the Standard Media Group Doreen Mbaya.

The incubator, co-funded by the Agency and implemented by the Università cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milan and by the E4Impact - Nairobi Foundation is a business incubator and accelerator aimed at promoting entrepreneurship in Kenya, thus creating employment opportunities for young people and to foistering the internationalization of new businesses. The incubator will provide start-up and scaling-up support to the selected best ideas or companies, giving particular attention to women employment and activities with high socio-environmental impact.

Ms. Savanella underlined how such initiatives, which link public, private and research actors, can be of great support for those who, despite having a potentially creative and attractive entrepreneurial idea, can not find opportunities to develop their own project.

The deadline for the applications submission is set for March 23, 2018. By 30 April 2018 will be selected the best 20 projects ideas that will take advantage of the services of the accelerator.

The incubator represents an implementation of the so-called "triple helix approach" that links that relates the three main actors involved in innovative processes - universities/research institutions, entreprises and institutions - to the new concept of development defined by the 2030 Agenda that gives a fundamental role to the private sector and to the growth of a local entrepreneurial class. In this perspective, two public entities are partners of the initiative - the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) and the Micro Enterprise Support Program Trust (MESPT) belonging to the Ministry of Industry - and two private actors - the Tangaza University College (TUC) and the Kenyan National Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KNCCI).

Among its services, the incubator will provide to participants market analysis, and place the entreprises within a network of national and international contacts, in particular Italian ones, for future investments and operational partnerships.


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Foto: @E4Impact via Twitter


“Kilimo Ni Swag”, agriculture is cool and can offer opportunities for the youngest

Kiambu – On 24 March 2018 the was officially launched the Reducing the adverse drivers of migration through local value chain development, a rural development project funded by the Agency with 1.5 million euro and implemented by the FAO in collaboration with the Kiambu County Government. The launch was attended by the Kiambu County Governor, Ferdinand Waititu, the Italian ambassador, Mauro Massoni, the AICS Nairobi Head of Office, Teresa Savanella, and the FAO representative in Kenya, Gabriel Rugalema.

The project aims to address the root causes of the emigration to Nairobi of young people coming from Kiambu County, a peri-urban area with a vibrant agricultural sector. Through support activities for entrepreneurship and development of value chains in agriculture, the project will contribute to job creation and will promote supply chain innovation, involving about 4.000 people. The intervention will strengthen the network of small and medium-sized enterprises and foster market-oriented production by developing those skills needed to transform products and promoting added value.

Un'attenzione particolare sarà rivolta ai giovani e alle donne, favorendo l’inclusione delle fasce più deboli attraverso opportunità d’impiego in loco e la crescita di attività imprenditoriali già esistenti nel settore. L’intervento, dunque, si allinea con due delle aree prioritarie della Big Four Agenda del presidente Kenyatta: la creazione opportunità di lavoro per i giovani e il miglioramento della sicurezza alimentare nel Paese.

Focus will be given to young people and women, fostering inclusion through employment opportunities in Kiambu, and growth of entrepreneurial activities already operating in the sector. The project activities are aligned with two of the priority areas of President Kenyatta's Big Four Agenda: job creation for young people and food security increase in the Country.

Nel sottolineare l’importanza di un progetto nato da una proposta delle autorità locali in risposta a un problema concreto, l’ambasciatore Massoni ha evidenziato come l’Italia costituisca un partner strategico per il Kenya, "un partner amico, che non impone idee e soluzioni, ma che collabora e accompagna le istituzioni in un viaggio comune per lo sviluppo e la trasformazione del Paese. Il successo di questo progetto – ha poi aggiunto – potrà cambiare il paradigma e aprire la strada a collaborazioni future, su simili progetti, con il coinvolgimento delle OSC italiane, del settore pubblico e di quello privato, sia italiano che keniota."

In underlining the importance of this project, coming from a proposal by local authorities in response to a real issue, Ambassador Massoni highlighted how Italy is a strategic partner for Kenya, "a friendly partner, who does not impose ideas and solutions, but that collaborates and accompanies the institutions in a common journey for development and transformation of the Country. The success of this project - he added - will change the paradigm and open the way for future collaborations on similar projects, with the involvement of the Italian CSOs, and public and private sector - both Italian and Kenyan."

Following Swahili's motto "Kilimo Ni Swag" - agriculture is cool - all the actors involved have affirmed their commitment to transform agriculture into an interesting and attractive activity for young people, thus reducing migration of young people due to economic or social fragility.


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A common goal for the cooperation system’s actors, stories from the Italian NGOs

Nairobi - On 4 June 2018, during the celebration of the Italian National Day at the residence of the Ambassador of Italy, was officially presented the book "Nia moja, One aim, Una meta - Experiences of Italian NGOs in Kenya". At the presentation, in a dedicated stand reserved to the Italian NGOs operating in the Country, attended the Italian Ambassador Mauro Massoni, the Head of the AICS Nairobi Office Teresa Savanella, representatives of the involved NGOs, and national and local government authorities.

The guests had the opportunity to interact with the representatives of the Italian NGOs at the stand, to read the book, to learn more about the activities promoted by the Italian Cooperation actors, and visit a photographic exhibition on the most significant activities of the organizations listed in the book.

The book, published thanks to the contribution of the AICS office in Nairobi and born within the regular meetings between the Civil Society Organizations, the Agency and the Embassy, was the outcome of a common desire to create a book that would collect and tell the activities of support and development carried out by the CSOs operating in Kenya. The title itself intends to underline the programmatic objective of a "common goal" through the translation of the same word into three different but closely linked languages: Swahili, English, Italian .

With the prefaces by Ambassador Massoni and Ms. Savanella, the book tells more about the experiences of Italian organizations in Kenya and the activities carried out through infographics on the areas of intervention and funding, as well as summaries on 30 Italian NGOs.

The support for this publication by AICS Nairobi is part of the activities carried out within the "Inclusive Development Partnership" initiative and in the implementation of the guidelines set by the Law 125/2014 , aimed at promoting synergies and partnerships between different actors working in a plural and efficient cooperation system.

• Nia Moja - One aim - Una meta


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Health at school, effective interventions to improve learning environments and a partnership that works

Kiserian - On 30 May 2018 a public event was hosted at the Kiserian Primary School to celebrate the achievements under the Kenya Comprehensive School Health Program, an initiative in the educational and health sectors co-financed by the Agency for an amount of 700,000 Euros and implemented by World Friends.

Together with the students, the event was attended by representatives of the Health and Education departments of Kajiado County, teachers and members of the beneficiary schools' councils, the Head of AICS Nairobi Teresa Savanella, operators of World Friends and representatives of the local partner organization Jukumu Letu .

The project, launched in 2015 and aimed at supporting Kenya Comprehensive School Health Policy implementation, has seen interventions in the educational, agricultural and health fields through activities to raise awareness on issues linkled to health, nutrition, hygiene, safety and environment. Additionally, activities included the construction of kitchens and toilets and the provision of water tanks and pumps in five schools in the County.

In his remarks, Ms. Savanella hoped that this model of partnership between public institutions, Italian organizations and local partners - that has been reaffirmed and consolidated during the project - can be replicated in other contexts to improve the effectiveness and to maximize the impact public resources dedicated to development. The collaboration between the actors involved in the project activities has proven to be particularly effective and has led to the development of several good practices that could be applied in implementing the Kenya Comprehensive School Health Policy.

Thanks to synergies between the different entities involved and solid relationships with local communities - key elements to promote conducive and sustainable conditions - it was possible to support the County in reaching the goals set by the Government  on health and in providing at the same time better services and safe learning environments for Kajiado teachers and pupils.


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